The X-Factor; Designer Superhero Workout Training Tips and Advice

Greetings true believers

With the new series of articles on Designer Superhero Workouts just beginning; I thought it only wise to give you some handy tips and advice to help you get the most from your workouts.

That’s right, beloved reader, today we learn from that diverse gang of Super Heroes, the X-Men. Thus, Your friendly neighbourhood Rogue Advisor will be sciencing you upside the head mutant style.

So what can we learn from these genetically mutated folk?

We can learn a lot of handy training tips and tactics from these diverse and over-the-top politically correct chaps.

Periodization

What’s this periodization business? 

Periodization can be defined as a system for program design that plans appropriate cycles and training phases. The system used in the Designer Superhero Workouts.

The human machine, being what it, is an incredibly adaptive organism; quickly responding to its input. You lift heavy you get strong. You stretch you’ll get flexible. You run for hours upon hours per day, you will have improved cardiovascular endurance.

But because it adapts to the input, it will become complacent, thus reducing the results. When this happens things need to be switched around a bit, to ‘shock’ the body into having to adapt again, producing new results. Do you think the X-Men do the same training day in day out in the danger room? Nope.

It has been time and time again proven for success in achieving training goals and has a track record of over 50 years of development. Research has confirmed that periodization has the ability to produce significantly better results than straight set training or normal progression type training. Michael JordanMuhammad AliUsain Bolt, Babe Ruth, Tiger woods, and Bruce Lee have all used this wonderful training tactic. It also provides the ultimate training log. Looking back on a year’s periodized training will really give clarity on how much you have accomplished over that time.

Program Design

This represents a periodized table of progression, working up to a competition.

Any good training programme should be considered as ongoing and therefore broken down into calendar based blocks of time based periods that usually termed as ‘cycles’.

During each cycle prioritize working on the attributes which will benefit the athlete. Within these cycles we have Macrocycles, planning the overall outline of the program and commonly lasting for three-month periods, give or take, depending on the individual athlete’s goals.

Macrocycles are then, in turn, broken down again into smaller more manageable segments called Mesocycles.

Training Phases

These are the Mesocycles, which enable the athlete to efficiently track their progress, maybe reassess their goals if necessary and tailor the routine to suit and desired changes; such as training tactics, nutrition, intensity etc. The cycles run from 3 to 12 weeks, but great yields can result from longer or shorter periods, dependant upon genetics, muscle fibre composition and already established attribute levels. A 3 to 8 week Mesocycle suits most people.

Hypertrophy phase: During this is the phase for the athlete will be most effective hitting a rep range between strength training and endurance training; that will stimulate all the different fibre types, thus, the greatest overall hypertrophy.

Hugh Jackman preparing to do some heavy squats for a hypertrophy phase.

Strength / power phases: Characterised by extremely high levels of intensity, all-out short distance sprints, lifting extremely heavy but for very low reps or a three-minute round in the boxing ring.

The easiest transition between phases is from strength to power; gradually decrease the reps from the usual 8 down to a range of 1 to 6, whilst also removing some exercises to really focus on the core movements for power: such as barbell squats, deadlifts,  bench press, bent-over barbell rows, military press etc.

Endurance phase: This phases consists of lower intensity but higher-volume workouts. Muscular and cardiovascular endurance will be the primary focus. It also functions as an experimental phase of sorts.

If there are new exercise techniques that need to be introduced, this is the phase for it. Given the low intensity, (weight usually), gives the athlete the opportunity to master them, the added repetitions required for the high-volume element.

Transitional phase: This is the transitional phase, to morph one phase into another. For example:gradually bringing the reps up when moving from a strength phase to an endurance phase, and visa versa.

Swimming is a fine example of ‘active rest’. I’m sure there are rules about adamantium claws in the swimming pool though.

Active rest: On ‘rest’ days it can sometimes be a good idea to get  what is known as ‘active rest’, keeping you geared up athletically but recreationally.

Body-weight Exercises

Hank McCoy demonstrates the value of bodyweight exercises.

If you wish to attain Beast-like agility, then add body-weight exercises as often as possible, like chin ups, pull-ups and bodyweight dips. When you can add extra resistance to those, you’ll be able to perform great feats of agility.

It’s common sense; let’s say you perform jumping squats whilst holding 2 dumbbells; when you get rid of the extra weight of the dumbbells, your jump height will be significantly higher.

You can also add a flexibility routine. A greater range of movement will facilitate greater dexterity.  

Break it down and rebuild it

BAMF!

When Nightcrawler teleports, all of the atoms in his body disassemble, pass through another plane of existence, then reassemble at another point in space and time.

A similar process is occurring in your skeletal muscle when you are working out, the exertion of the training breaks the muscle down, actually damaging the tissue. The body then reacts to this by re-growth geared toward the new input.

This anabolic process occurs when you are resting and eating, that’s when the cells get reassembled. Once the skeletal muscle has been nicely broken down, even they haven’t travelled through another plane of existence, we still need to put them back together.

Thus we need . . .

SNIKT!

“Recovery bub”

The sooner one can recover from a training session, the sooner one can train again, speeding up the results. That’s simple for Wolverine; he regenerates. It doesn’t matter how much he gets cut, smashed, pummelled, drinks or smokes; he never takes any lasting or permanent damage or even gains a scar.

So, bereft of mutant powers how can we get recovering at such a rate?

Protein: Already covered this in ‘The Asgardian Power-House‘, but a little more detail couldn’t hurt. Get plenty of it, from high quality sources. The reason for this is that the building blocks of protein are called amino acids, and they all have a different and vital function.

Human protein is formed from 20 amino acids that are found within proteins.  Alanine, Arginine, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Cysteine,  Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine Threonine,  Tryptophan, Tyrosine and Valine.

Humans can produce 10 of the 20 amino acids. The others must be supplied in the food. Failure to obtain enough of even 1 of the 10 essential amino acids, those that we cannot make, results in degradation of the body’s proteins—muscle and so forth—to obtain the one amino acid that is needed. Unlike fat and starch, the human body does not store excess amino acids for later use—the amino acids must be in the food every day.

Non-Essential amino acids: The 10 amino acids that are essential, those that can be converted by the liver from other nutrients are; alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine and tyrosine. Tyrosine is produced from phenylalanine, so if the diet is deficient in phenylalanine, tyrosine will be required as well.

Essential amino acids: Are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. This means we must consume them and / or supplement them in our diets. Supplementation may be the only option for some of these if you’re vegetarian and the only option if you happen to be vegan.

Glutamine

This is the stuff I’m talking about, the very brand that yours truly uses. It’ll have you recovering like Wolverine.

We’re going to focus on one really important one for regeneration. Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions, including: Protein bio-synthesis, as any other of the proteinogenic amino acids, regulation of acid-base balance in the kidney by producing ammonium, nitrogen donation for many anabolic processes including the synthesis of purines, carbon donation, as a source, refilling the citric acid cycle, nontoxic transporter of ammonia in the blood circulation.

Basically, whenever your body needs to make a repair, glutamine is the primary amino acid it goes to for most reparation chores. When any part of your body needs healing, say from a cut, recovery from a hangover or even sleep deprivation, it’s glutamine that gets used, and a great majority is extracted straight from the skeletal muscles. Unless there is some spare via supplementation. There aren’t many supplements worth spending your hard-earned or hard-stolen cash on but glutamine is without doubt one of them, get it in powdered form, for ease of absorption.

Sleep

Most of us don’t get anywhere near enough sleep, the regeneration magic happens then But when we are so busy in our daily lives with those vile afflictions known as day jobs, those wondrous affairs called social lives and those horrors we address as responsibilities; sleep is the first thing Sleep deprivation can have a big impact on our metabolism; slowing it down and hoarding fat and not getting enough sleep slows glucose metabolism by as much as 30 to 40 percent, causing even more fat gain. EEK

Eve Van Cauter, PhD , from the University of Chicago Medical School, studied the effects of three different durations of sleep in eleven men aged 18 to 27.

For the first three nights of the study, the men slept eight hours per night; for the next six nights, they slept four hours per night; for the last seven nights, they slept 12 hours per night. Results showed that after four hours of sleep per night, they metabolized glucose least efficiently. Levels of cortisol were also higher, which has been linked to memory impairment, age-related insulin resistance, and impaired recovery in athletes.

Van Cauter said that after only one week of sleep restriction, young, healthy males had glucose levels that were no longer normal and showed a rapid deterioration of the body’s functions. This reduced ability of the body to manage glucose is similar to those found in the elderly. This study shows that sleep deprivation can negatively impact physiology that is critical for athletic performance — glucose metabolism and cortisol status.

While no one completely understands the complexities of sleep, this does indicates that sleep deprivation can lead to decreased activity of human growth hormone (which is active during tissue repair), and decreased glycogen synthesis.

Psylocke demonstrates sleeping. Never mind showing off all the psychic abilities and martial skills, eh?

So how much sleep is required?

It going to differ from person to person, but the general consensus is 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep, more for is required for athletes due to greater physical exertion. A minimum of 6, preferably 7, and if you’re raining hard 8 to 9 hours.

Some of our genes act as internal clocks and release hormones according to cycles called circadian rhythms, which are triggered by darkness and light and alternate over 24-hour periods. When we mess with these rhythms by not getting enough sleep, our metabolism of glucose declines, and our level of cortisol increases. Further, sleeping for long stretches is naturally anabolic.

During deep sleep, our bodies release growth hormone, which stimulates the healing and growth of muscle and bone. So while it’s possible to push through a lack of sleep during any one day, proper sleep helps athletes by boosting areas of performance that require cognitive function, reaction time, hand-eye coordination and of course it aids recovery from grueling workouts.

Anything else? It is a pretty big team to learn from

Use your mind.

The mind-muscle-connection

Great things can be accomplished with strong focus, concentration and visualisation. A technique utilised by many athletic pros to maximize muscle and performance. By developing a strong ‘mind-muscle connection’ ,this connection is made by visualizing the muscle being trained and focusing on the feeling of it working through its complete range of motion during each rep.

When applying the technique don’t think about where you feel the muscular stimulus, think about where you’re supposed to feel the stimulus. For example; during press ups the muscle that should be shifting all the weight are the pectoralis major, but a lot of people end up focusing too much on the arms, triceps specifically, which are only assisting the movement. Instead you must focus on contacting the pectorals thereby bringing the arms together and forward, the triceps assisting only to extend the elbow joint. Continue with this thought process during the negative phase of the movement, focusing on the feeling of the pectorals stretching.

Keeping your mental focus channeled in this manner will direct the majority of stress to the target muscles of your chest, maximizing muscular stimulation. It sounds daft, far-fetched even a little sci-fi but believe in your Rogue Advisor, beloved reader, the mind-muscle connection is the real deal.

Visualization

Some athletes routinely use visualization techniques in both training and competition. Those who’ve used these techniques have cultivated not only a competitive edge, but also found renewed mental awareness, and a heightened sense of focus.

Visualization is also referred to as guided imagery, mental rehearsal, mediation, etc. Regardless of the term applied, the techniques and concepts are the same. Visualization is the mental process of creating an image or intention of what you desire.

Colossus. Clearly.

“Throughout my bodybuilding career, I was constantly playing tricks on my mind. This is why I began to think of my biceps as mountains, instead of flesh and blood. Thinking of my biceps as mountains made my arms grow faster and bigger than if I’d seen them only as muscles.” – Arnold Schwarzenegger

This technique can be used to increase the ‘intent’ of the result of a competition or training session. By visualizing the desired scene, complete with reverie of a previous best performance or a future target, the athlete is then ‘steps into’ that feeling. While imagining these scenarios, the athlete will imagine in perfect detail, all the myriad sensations of the way it feels to perform in the desired way, or the results wanted from that training session.

And finally

Keep it cool.

No really. It does wonders for you. Every time you get stressed out, start vexing or get your raging bellyache on, you get a massive surge of nasty old cortisol, which breaks down muscle tissue. So when you have to skip a meal or a workout, don’t be miffed but don’t use cortisol as an excuse to slack off either. Temperature also affects testosterone levels. Everyone knows that guys who sleep in the cold have a higher sperm count right? That’s because testosterone is boosted when the testicles are at just the right chilly temperature. Yay.

Until next time. Stay informed.

 

Addressing the Target

There should be a boom in this wonderous and deliciously roguish art given recent TV programming and RPG rogue and / or ranger enthusiasts should start their larceny and / or geekiness glands pumping.

Oliver Queen. If you haven't seen the show simply titled 'Arrow', then I suggest you do so immediately.

This is Oliver Queen.
If you haven’t seen the show simply titled ‘Arrow’, then I suggest you do so immediately. Now.

That’s right, beloved reader, today your friendly neighbourhood Rogue Advisor will be taking you through kinesiological attribute enhancement for the noblest and most dextrous form of marksmanship.

Archery

So what makes a good archer? The same mighty stuff as any other athlete; firstly knowledge in one’s chosen art, then the discipline to apply the know how, followed by the hard work to see it all through to fruition.

We wont be going too deep into technique; trying to teach someone the finer points of archery from a blog would be like trying to teach a vegan how to prepare Halal. Therefore, beloved toxophilite, we will cover the very basics and then the juicy kinesiology. Yay.

1 – Stance: Stand perpendicular to your target, feet roughly shoulder width apart and straddling the shooting line. Balance your weight evenly over both feet, maintaining perfect posture but don’t stiffen your spine, it will need to remain flexible to absorb recoil. Place your back foot parallel with the line and angle the forward foot slightly toward the target whilst keeping a little slack in the knees.

2 – Nock: Sounds simple but there is a technique to this, all these stages matter. Nocking the arrow is the part where you place it against the bow-string and also preparing to draw. Be  sure that the index feathers point away from the bow, lay the arrow itself upon the arrow-rest, then snap the nock onto the bow-string under the nocking point. Simple. This process guarantees a consistent draw every time, assisting accuracy. Once your set, take the string in the first joint of the first three fingers of the drawing hand.

3 – Pre-draw: Raise the bow towards the target and lock the extended bow arm into position.

At a point like this you'll really want to be drawing faster. With enough practice it'll all happen in a flash.

At a point like this you’ll really want to be drawing faster. With enough practice it’ll all happen pre-trampling / goring rather than post mutilation.

4 – Draw: This is where the kinesiology comes in; pushing with the tricep of the bow arm and pull back with the latissimus dorsi, posterior deltoid and outer head of the biceps brachii of the drawing arm until the bow-string touches your nose and lips. Your elbow should stop behind and slightly above your shoulder, putting the resulting muscular tension on the mid-trapezius fibres.

5 – Anchor: The final stage of a correctly performed draw sequence. In the anchoring stage the drawing hand comes to rest against your face before aiming and releasing. The anchor point can be either the chin or cheek, whichever you feel most comfortable with.

6 – Aim: This really cannot be instructed, it will become second nature over time. Try to align the bow-sight with the target and try to factor in wind, distance and drift.

7 – Release: Squeeze all those muscles tight that you now are working to hold the position, open the drawing hand and let that arrow fly.

8 – Follow through: When the arrow leaves the bow, continue pulling the drawing hand along the base of your neck and allow the bow to move forward in your bow-hand. Then inspect your handy-work.

Hawkeye demonstrates the stance and by proxy those muscles used when performing it, that we will be focusing on.

Hawkeye demonstrates the stance and by proxy those muscles used when performing it. That’s what we will be focusing on.

The supplementary workout

Because that’s what it is. When you are training for a skill such as archery, the resistance training is an added bonus to hours of technical drills and target practice. This routine would be best practiced only once or twice per week, and not on consecutive days. Why are we focusing on enhancing the above stance? Because pulling back a bow-string isn’t an easy task, then to keep it steady whilst aiming is even harder. Therefore, beloved reader, we are strengthening the muscles involved so the archer themselves can maintain the stance for extended periods, allowing longer to aim with fresh perspective and therefore greater accuracy. Logic. Follow the handy links for exercise instruction, (sorry but Level Up still is bereft of recording equipment; stay tuned), and perform two to three sets of each.

Seated cable rows, (with isometric contraction): We begin the workout with focus on the lats and the mid-trapezius; they are doing the greatest deal of work. First the lats are the prime movers in pulling the bow-string back with the hands somewhere between a supinated and pronated grip, thus the choice of grip on the exercise. Once back there though, the mid-trapezius is holding everything steady for as long as it takes to make the shot. That’s where isometrics comes in handy, at the peak of each concentric movement hold that position of two seconds before repeating the movement; really focusing on the mid-trapezius. Go comfortably heavy on these; enough weight to manage 10 to 12 reps with perfect form.

Bent-over dumbbell flye: Next is the rear head of the deltoids. It has already been assisting the lats and traps on the pull, now we want them to become inexhaustible pillars of contraction. Be really carefull with form on this movement, keeping the lower back perfectly straight and be sure not to cheat / swing the weight up into position. Mid to light weight with these, perform around 12 to 15 reps on this movement.

Dips, (with isometric contraction): The tricep of the extended arm is stabilising the bow, thus we need to work the three-headed rear of the arm muscle with isometric work. Pause and hold at the lowest point of the dip, the mid-point of the movement and at full extension for 10 seconds. This tactic essentially takes the plyometric effect out of the equation, forcing the triceps to become stabilizing machines. Nice. Only perform one set of these for as many reps as possible.

Concentration curls: Just as the triceps have three ‘heads’ that make up the whole muscle group, biceps have two distinct ‘heads’. We will be focusing on the long head, (outer head), that is also assisting with our bow-string pulling. Go super light on these, they are the proverbial cherry on the kinesiology cake and nothing more. Aim for 12 to 15 reps.

Cable twists: Once the bow-string is pulled all the way back, any further turning to aim is done by the transverse abdominus. This little number will not only make the action of turning to aim quicker and easier, it’ll tone the waistline to heroic slimness. Sweet.

Note that it’s not a full body workout, that would be entirely up to the individual archer whether or not they wish to pursue such levels of fitness. This supplementary workout is intended to strengthen basics.

Hopefully you feel a little more ballistically inclined.

Hopefully you feel a little more ballistically inclined.

Terminology

Just to keep things concise and informative, beloved reader, I present the terminology of this fine skill in all it’s medieval jargonified glory.

  • Addressing the Target: The archer’s stance straddling the shooting line prior to shooting the arrow.
  • Aim: Visually lining up a sight pin to the center of the target; if a sight is not used, visual placement of the tip of the arrow on a specific point while shooting at a target over a given distance.
  • Anchor Point: The fixed position of the bowstring hand on the jaw or cheek while holding or aiming.
  • Archer’s Paradox: Situation in which the arrow flies in the direction aimed although its initial movement is in a different direction.
  • Arm Guard: Device worn on forearm and wrist areas of the bow arm to protect the arm from impact.
  • Arrow Plate: The piece to which the arrow rest is attached.
  • Arrow Rest: Device mounted just above the arrow shelf on the bow on which the arrow rests during draw, hold and release.
  • Arrowsmith: Individual specializing in making arrows and/or arrowheads.
  • Back: The side of the bow limb away from the string.
  • Bare Bow: Method of shooting which does not use a bow sight.
  • Billet: One of two short pieces joined at the handle to make a bow.
  • Blunt: Arrow with a blunt tip for use on small game.
  • Bow Arm: The arm in which the bow is held.
  • Bowyer: One who makes bows.
  • Brace/String Height: Distance between the pivot point of the bow and the string. AKA: Fistmale.
  • Bracing: Process of stringing the bow in preparation for shooting, by placing the bowstring loops into position in the notches of the bow.
  • Bull’s Eye: The center of the target or that part of the target face with the highest scoring value.
  • Butt: A mound of straw on which the target face is placed.
  • Cast: the speed with which an arrow is shot.
  • Clout: Shooting at a relatively long distance at a large target lying, or painted, flat on the ground.
  • Composite Bow: Bow composed of two or more materials, such as wood and fiberglass. Invented by H.W. Allen in 1966, designed with an eccentric pulley system to maximize pull weight poundage at mid-draw and minimize stacking at full draw.
  • Bow Creeping: Undesired forward motion of the bowstring from the anchor point immediately prior to release.
  • Crest: Colored bands on the arrow used to identify a set.
  • Director of Shooting: The individual in charge of shooting. AKA: Field Captain; Lady Paramount.
  • Double Round: Shooting the same round twice.
  • Draw: The process of moving the bowstring with nocked arrow from brace height to the archer’s anchor point on the face.
  • Drift: Deviation in the flight of an arrow due to wind.
  • End: A set number of arrows which are shot before going to the target (typically 3, 5, or 6) to score and retrieve them.
  • Face: The side of the bow nearest the string. AKA: Belly.
  • Finger Tab: Leather device worn to prevent blistering on the surface of the three drawing fingers.
  • Fletching: The stabilizing feathers attached to an arrow between the nock and crest. See vane.
  • Follow-Through: The act of holding the release position until the arrow has struck the target.
  • Freestyle: Style of shooting using a bow-sight.
  • Flu-Flu: An arrow with large or spiraled fletchings, which increase drag and reduce the arrow’s range.
  • Grip/Handle: The center portion of the bow where the hand exerts pressure during the draw.
  • Grouping: The arrangement of the end of arrows on the target face after they have been shot.
  • Hanging Arrow: An arrow that does not penetrate the target, but dangles from its point.
  • Hen Feathers: The two feathers on either side of the index feather. Traditionally, these feathers are not as flamboyant as the index feather.
  • Hit: An arrow which embeds itself within one of the scoring areas on the target face.
  • Holding: The act of maintaining the bow and arrow in a stable position at full draw prior to release.
  • Index Feather: The feather at right angle to the slit in the nock of the arrow and usually a different color from the remaining feathers. AKA: cock feather.
  • Kick: When the bow shoots with a jar to the bow hand.
  • Kiss Button: A contact point on the bowstring for the archer’s lips to touch as to insure consistency and accuracy of the anchor point.
  • Let Down: Releasing tension after drawing without releasing the arrow.
  • Limbs: The energy-storing parts of the bow located above and below the riser.
  • Longbow: A long, relatively straight bow that preceded the recurve bow in many cultures.
  • Nock: Device on the end of the arrow opposite the point, made with a groove for holding the arrow to the bowstring when placed in position for shooting.
  • Nocking: The technique of placing the arrow on the bowstring in preparation for shooting.
  • Nock Locator: The stops on the serving of the bowstring which mark the nocking point for the arrow.
  • Nocking Point: The position on the string where the arrow is placed. Typically marked by the nock locator.
  • Notch: The slits at the ends of the bow for the string.
  • Overdraw: Drawing the arrow beyond the face of the bow or drawing the bow to its point of maximum stress on the limbs.
  • Peeking: Undesired motion of the archer’s head at time of release in an attempt to follow the arrow trajectory into the target.
  • Plucking: Undesired lateral motion of the string hand and arm away from the bowstring at time of release.
  • Point/Pile: The tip of the arrow that pierces the target. Classifications include: target; field; broadhead; and blunt.
  • Point-Blank Range: Distance at which the archer may utilize the center of the target as an aiming point.
  • Point-of-Aim: A technique, whereby the archer uses a mark unattached to the bow and usually on the ground as an alignment point.
  • Pressure Point: Place on the arrow plate against which the arrow lies and exerts pressure when the arrow is released. It can be cushioned or spring-loaded.
  • Quiver: Any device designed to hold arrows not being shot.
  • Range: Area designated for target or field archery.
  • Rebound: An arrow that bounces off the target face.
  • Recurve Bow: Bow manufactured so the ends of the limbs deflect toward the back of the bow to increase leverage when the bow is braced.
  • Release: The act of putting the arrow into flight due to a release of pressure on the bowstring. AKA: Loose.
  • Riser: The areas of the bow just above and below the grip.
  • Round: Term used to designate the number of arrows to be shot at specific distances at specific target faces or targets.
  • Self Bow: A bow made of one piece of wood or raw material.
  • Serving: Protective thread wrapped around the bowstring where the arrow is nocked.
  • Shaft: The body of the arrow upon which the nock, fletching, and point are mounted, and the crest is printed.
  • Shooting Line: The line straddled by archers during shooting which indicates a specific distance from the target in target archery.
  • Sight/Bow-sight: Adjustable device attached to the bow which facilitates the aiming process for the archer.
  • Skirt/Petticoat: The outermost perimeter of the target face outside the scoring area.
  • Spine: The measured deflection of an arrow when depressed by a two-pound weight at its center.
  • Stabilizer: Weighted device added to the riser of the bow and designed to reduce torque and absorb shock upon release.
  • Stacking: Disproportionate increase in bow weight during the last few inches of the draw.
  • Stave: Full-length piece of wood used to make a bow.
  • Tackle: Equipment used by an archer.
  • Target Captain: Individual at each target designated to determine and call the score of each arrow and pull them from the target.
  • Target Face: The scoring area of the target.
  • Tiller: Device for holding the bow at draw and to inspect the curvature.
  • Toxophilite: Individual pursuing the sport of archery, as a participant and/or student.
  • T-Square: Device used to measure brace height and locate the nocking point on the bowstring.
  • Trajectory: The parabolic flight pattern of an arrow following release.
  • Tuning: Adjustment of arrow rest, pressure point, string height and nocking height to improve arrow flight; includes determination of correct spine.
  • Vane: A term used most commonly when fletching is made of plastic or rubber instead of feathers.
  • Weigh/Draw Weight: The bow manufacturer’s determined number of pounds required to draw each bow’s string at a given draw length.
  • Windage: The effect of wind on the arrow’s flight.
  • Window: Viewing space between the side of the bow and the string at full draw.
You should now feel able to select a perk. Yay.

You should now feel able to select a perk. Yay.

Until next time. Stay informed.